ADDIE, a simple, yet highly useful model for instructional design provides us with a framework for content development. The acronym “ADDIE” stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate. It does not suggest following certain specific learning theories, but is used as a device to help us think about the course design.
Let’s understand the phases in detail:
Analysis: The analysis phase involves analyzing the following:
- Need: This phase involves identification or assessment of a training need. It answers the question ‘Is there a need for training’? If yes, then the task analysis is done.
- Task: Task analysis helps in determining the instructional goals and major learning objectives of the course.
- Audience: Audience analysis aids in determining the current level of skills possessed by the learner and attitude of the learner towards the course.
In short, the analysis phase of ADDIE provides the requisite information needed to proceed with the design phase.
Design:The design phase helps us create a course framework or structure comprising of various activities.
Development: The development phase, the longest phase of all, focuses on the development of the course involving writing storyboards, creating graphics and animation, recording voiceovers, course integration and testing.
Implementation: This phase involves delivery of the course to a learner or audience. It can be delivered to a sample audience with an objective to learn their views or the actual client / audience for whom the course is created.
Evaluation: This phase focuses on evaluation of the effectiveness of the course. Since the course is developed with learning objectives, it is important to determine whether the course has been able to achieve its objective. The Kirkpatrick model is often used for measuring the effectiveness of the evaluation.
I am sure that many people are aware about the effectiveness and appropriateness of the ADDIE model. Besides ADDIE, there are other models like Dick and Carrey System Approach Model, Instructional Design Learning System (IDLS) and Rapid Prototyping. Each instruction design model has its pros and cons. Likewise, the ADDIE model too has its advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of the ADDIE model:
- It provides a step-by-step process to aid in planning and creating training programs.
- It provides several opportunities to re-evaluate learning goals and outcomes.
- It ensure the design and development of training material.
- It is a basic model that can be used for any kind of learning and is very systematic and thorough in including all the components of other instructional design models.
- The ADDIE model leads to better results from the learner’s point of view because each step is focused on helping learners achieve the desired objective.
Disadvantages of the ADDIE model:
- It is incompetent because it is not iterative.
- It assumes that the requirements of the client-learner are completely known before developing the course.
- As per the model, all the phases are interrelated. Changes, which occur during one phase of the model, affect all the other phases which in turn, lead to reworking.
- Most of the times, complete analysis assumptions are made which like changes, also lead to a lot of reworking.
- Lastly, it is a very time-consuming model.
With these disadvantages, some improvements have been made by introducing “Rapid Prototyping”. This is a working model of the final product, which is duplicated in the final course after the client’s approval. Still in its nascent stage, the involvement of Subject Matter Experts and the clients identify the mistakes or problems, resulting in reduction of rework in the final course. Thus, Rapid Prototyping can be used when you are struggling with time and costs.
Do share your thoughts on the same.